First Aid

First Aid is the temporary help given to an injured or a sick person before professional medical treatment can be provided. This timely assistance, comprising of simple medical techniques, is most critical to the victims and is, often, life saving. Any layperson can be trained to administer first aid, which can be can be carried out using minimal equipments. Basic training in first aid skills should be taught in school, in work places and, in general, be learnt by all, as it is mandatory to our modern and stressful life.




  1. It is a group of skin rashes
  2. Acne Vulgaris, popularly called pimples, affects face
  3. Caused by blocked hair follicles
  4. Commonly affects the young




  1. Increase in sex hormones during puberty
  2. Oil glands of skin produce more secretions
  3. Dead cells and secretions block hair follicles causing infections
  4. Infected follicles gets inflamed leading to acne


Factors that can worsen your Acne


  1. Hormonal changes during menses.
  2. Squeezing of pimples
  3. Pollution and high humidity
  4. Oily diet


Myths associates with the causes of Acne


  1. Chocolates, junk food, dirty skin, and stress cause acne
  2. No scientific backing for these myths




  1. Consult a skin specialist or dermatologist
  2. Common medications include -
    a. Benzoyl peroxide
    b. Resorcinol
    c. Salicylic acid
    d. Sulfur drugs


Skin Care


  1. Clean skin with mild Cleanser
  2. Avoid squeezing of pimples
  3. Avoid sunburn
  4. Use oil-free cosmetics
  5. Avoid fizzy drinks
  6. Eat a balanced diet
  7. Drink plenty of fluids


First Aid for  Animal Bite

  1. Domestic pets cause more bites
  2. Dogs more likely to bite, cats more infectious
  3. Risk of rabies with non-immunized pets / stray / wild animals
  4. Raccoons, skunks, foxes, bats too carry rabies



  1. Skin break
  2. Bruise / puncture
  3. Cuts
  4. Bleeding
  5. Swelling and redness of the area
  6. Oozing of fluid




  1. Calm the affected person
  2. Wash hands before attending to wound
  3. Wash wound with soap & running water
  4. Apply antibiotic ointment 
  5. Dress using sterile bandage
  6. After first aid, medical treatment must be sought quickly
  7. Suturing may be required
  8. Tetanus booster / antibiotics required
  9. Treatment depends on type / location of wound




  1. Avoid keeping wild animals as pets 
  2. Choose a pet that is friendly to children
  3. Train the pet to obey commands
  4. Vaccinate your pet
  5. When children are around, pets supervision is required
  6. Avoid leaving infants alone with pets


  1. It is a chronic lung disease
  2. It creates narrowing of air passages of the lung
  3. Produces difficulty in breathing. 




  1. Wheezing
  2. Cough and cold
  3. Tightness in the chest
  4. Sticky mucus
  5. Disturbed sleep
  6. Breathlessness



  1. Hereditary factors
  2. Environmental factors like dust, mite, pollen
  3. Occupational exposure to irritants
  4. Dietary Changes
  5. Lack of exercise 


Asthma Triggering Factors

  1. Colds and viruses
  2. Irritants like Cigarette smoke, scent, pollution 
  3. Cold air or change in weather
  4. Physical exertion 
  5. Allergens like dust, mite, pollen, furs
  6. Some medications
  7. Infections
  8. Stress


Myths about asthma


  1. It is contagious
  2. It cannot be controlled
  3. Asthma medicines are addictive


Management of Asthma

  1. Asthma cannot be cured, but it can be controlled
  2. Keep the house clean 
  3. Use hardwood floors or tile 
  4. Avoid carpets in house
  5. Avoid pets with fur or feathers 
  6. Use clean bed sheets & pillow covers 
  7. Use bed made of synthetic materials 
  8. Use air conditioner 
  9. Maintain low humidity at home 



  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs include:
    a. Steroid Inhalers
    b. Sodium Chromoglycate Inhalers / Capsules
  2. Treatment –Bronchodilators
  3. Common bronchodilators include:
    a. Salbutamol Inhalers
    b. Terbutaline Tabs
  4. Consult your Pulmonologist



Famous sports person with asthma

  • Ian Botham (Cricketer)
  • Jackie Joyner Kersee (Athlete)
  • Mark Spitz (Swimmer)

Bleeding Gums




  1. Progressive disease affecting oral cavity
  2. Characterized by chronic bleeding of gums
  3. May lead to tooth loss 



  1. Poor oral hygiene
  2. Inadequate plaque removal 
  3. Oral trauma, like toothbrush abrasion
  4. Inflammation caused by infection
  5. Vitamin C / K deficiency
  6. Hot food 
  7. Chemical irritants
  8. Leukemia
  9. Pregnancy 



  1. Apply pressure using ice-pack 
  2. Mouth rinse: Pinch of salt in lukewarm water 
  3. Rinse twice a day to reduce swelling
  4. Consult a dentist if bleeding continues
  5. Avoid aspirin intake 
  6. Massage gums regularly
  7. Reline poorly fitted dentures
  8. Take vitamin supplements if necessary



  1. Avoid Tobacco
  2. Avoid snacking between meals
  3. Reduce Carbohydrate- rich food
  4. Remove plaque every 6 months
  5. Brush teeth using soft-bristled brush
  6. Floss teeth regularly



  • White flakes of dead skin 
  • Dandruff mostly affects scalp
  • Not a health hazard but a nuisance





  • A fungus, Malassezia
  • It feeds on scalp's natural oils 
  • Produces acid which causes itch
  • Other factors-
    a. Climate
    b. Stress
    c. Hormone production
    d. Oily skin
    e. Food habits 


  • Use anti-dandruff, conditioner-based shampoo
  • Rinse scalp for 5 minutes with shampoo
  • If resistant, apply 1 % hydrocortisone cream
  • If severe, consult a dermatologist /trichologist



  • Cannot be prevented but managed 
  • Use good quality shampoo 
  • Wash hair frequently 
  • Avoid using gels/ waxes
  • Eat a healthy diet





  1. Injuries due to heat/ chemicals/ electricity/ radiation
  2. Common heat injuries due to fire, hot liquids, steam
  3. Burns due to heat / chemicals - through skin contact 
  4. Severe burns affect muscles, fat and bones
  5. Older people/ children - particularly vulnerable


Categories of burns


  1. First, second and third degree 
  2. Categorization depends on severity of tissue damage 
  3. Check extent of burn before deciding self treatment
  4. Seek help if burn is over a couple of inches in diameter, or
  5. If it involves large sections of the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint


First-degree burns


  1. Injuries are superficial / mild
  2. Swelling& redness of the injured area 
  3. Pain develops
  4. No blisters seen
  5. Burned area becomes white on touch
  6. Takes 3-6 days to heal




  1. Remove patient from heat source
  2. Remove the burnt clothing
  3. Run cool water over burnt area
  4. Gently clean the injured area
  5. Gently dry 
  6. Apply anti biotic such as Silver Sulphadiazine
  7. Use a sterile bandage to cover burns
  8. Take tetanus vaccination, if required


Second -degree burns



  1. Burns extends to middle skin layer, dermis 
  2. Swelling, redness and pain observed
  3. Burnt area may turn white on touch
  4. Blisters develop, that ooze a clear fluid 
  5. Scars may develop
  6. Restricts movement, if injury occurs at joint
  7. Dehydration may occur
  8. Healing time varies, depends on extent of injury




  1. Clean the affected area thoroughly
  2. Gently dry
  3. Apply antibiotic cream over affected area
  4. Make the patient lie down
  5. Keep burnt body part at a raised level
  6. Skin graft may be required
  7. Physical therapy may be essential to aid mobility 
  8. Splints may be used to rest affected joints 
  9. Hospitalization is essential

third-degree burns


  1. Damage occurs to all 3 skin layers
  2. Destroys adjacent hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings 
  3. Lack of pain due to destroyed nerves
  4. Injured area does not turn white on touch
  5. No blisters observed
  6. Swelling occurs
  7. Skin develops leathery texture 
  8. Discoloration of skin observed
  9. Scars develop 
  10. Crusty surfaces (Eschars) develop-impairs circulation 
  11. Dehydration occurs resulting in shock 
  12. Symptoms may worsen with time 
  13. Disfigurement may result 
  14. Healing depends on extent of injury 
  15. 90% body surface injury results in death 
  16. 60% injury in elderly, fatal 




  1. Requires immediate hospital care 
  2. Dehydration treated through intravenous fluid supply 
  3. Oxygen is administered 
  4. Eschars are surgically opened 
  5. Periodically run clean cool water over burns 
  6. Nutritious diet helps to heal quickly 
  7. Regular monitoring essential 
  8. treated by anti-depressants 




  1. Install smoke alarm in your home 
  2. Employ 'children friendly' safety measures at home 
  3. Avoid synthetic clothing while cooking 
  4. Carry out fire drills at home and work place




  1. Injuries caused when electric current passes through body
  2. Source may be natural or man-made


During Electric Shock

  1. Makes you fall down
  2. Muscle contraction
  3. Seizures
  4. Dehydration
  5. Burns 
  6. Fractures
  7. Clotting of blood
  8. Tissue death (narcosis)
  9. Respiratory/Heart/Kidney failure


Steps to follow


  1. Do not attempt to move the victim from current source
  2. First step is to switch off the current source
  3. Otherwise, move the source using a wooden stick 
  4. Attend to the victim
  5. Check for breathing
  6. No breathing, do cardio pulmonary resuscitation 
  7. Call emergency medical aid
  8. If breathing, do a physical examination 
  9. Treat for minor burns
  10. Re-establish vital functions
  11. Excessive burns may require hospitalization/ surgery
  12. Supportive care must be provided



  1. Proper design, installation, maintenance of electric devices 
  2. Educating the public regarding electrical devices
  3. Keep electrical gadgets out of children’s reach 
  4. Learn to respect electricity and electrical devices